Permanent Makeup - by Cheryl A. Doss, RN
History of Permanent Makeup
     Most will agree that permanent makeup has been in existence since the Ice Age, when crude natural substances were used to create color and instruments for placing colorful art in the skin. Cleopatra is believed to have been adorned with permanent makeup and Egyptian mummies have been recovered with face and body tattoos intact. The ancient Japanese art of Tebori boasts full-body tattooing intricately done by hand.
     Between then and now, there have been numerous advances in technology which have impacted methodology and colors that are manufactured for cosmetic tattooing. A variety of machines and manual methods is available along with an array of pigment manufacturers to choose from, but the simple principles of placing color under the surface of the skin remain the same.
     The first electric tattoo machine, reportedly was designed by Samuel O'$eilly of New York in 1880, and in the USA, Dr. Crowell Beard, an occuloplastic surgeon, first recorded performing an eyeliner procedure ty tattooing as a replacement for lost eyelashes.  The first textbookknown on the subject of cosmetic tattooing was written by Drs. Zwerling, Christensen and Goldstein in 1986, call Micropigmentation. Micropigmentation was the name awarded to the procedure of tattooing makeup to distinguish their use of microscopic lenses during the procedures.  The term is still used today, along with many others:  dermal pigmentation, dermapigmentation, microdermapigmentation, dermal graphics, cosmetic tattooing.  There are still other names given to this art and science, but  "permanent makeup" and "permanent cosmetics" are most widely recognized by the general public .
     Permanent makeup has been increasing in popularity around the world. It has been performed in the USA for years... a challenging experience for women prior to the last decade, because in the 20 century, tattoos of any kind had not been socially acceptable...especially for women! Many women kept their permanent makeup a secret from family and friends.  Along with the acceptance of body art,  Athe lasting beauty and wonderful convenience of permanent cosmetics@ has filtered its way into the lives of women everywhere who are eager to have natural, fresh-looking makeup all day, everyday, and minimal fussing with pencils, tubes and brushes.  
We can thank one traditional tattoo artist who began cosmetic tattooing procedures in 1979, the late, beloved, Pati Pavlik, who is noted for being at the forefront of this movement. By 1985, about 2/3 of Pati's tattooing work was cosmetic.  For having ushered-in the mainstreaming of permanent cosmetics across America, she is fondly named the "Mother of Permanent Makeup." Thanks Pati! Since that time, she and notable others have furthered the art, science and legislation of the permanent makeup industry.
      The permanent cosmetics industry is growing fast.   Various organizations exist which help to educate the public and nurture growth inside the industry as well. To summarize, the first of these was the National Cosmetic Tattooing Association, founded by Pati Pavlik in 1989.  The eye of this organization is focused on scientific data associated with permanent cosmetics. Two national/international, organizations, the Society of Permanent Cosmetic Professionals, founded by Susan Church and Susan Preston in 1990, and the American Academy of Micropigmentation founded in 1992, serve to ensure high minimum standards of practice in the permanent cosmetics industry.  Many state-level permanent cosmetics organizations have formed, as well, and in 2001, Cosmetech, the first permanent cosmetics trade magazine, was published! 
Is permanent makeup here to stay?  A new awareness and acceptance of permanent cosmetics has made its impact clear!  So clear, in fact, it has spurred the major conventional cosmetic industry leaders toward the creation and mass production of semi-permanent cosmetics, found at every beauty counter for those who may wish to try out permanence before actually having permanent cosmetics applied.  It's no secret anymore.  Yes!  Permanent makeup is here to stay!